General Information

Territory and location

Kazakhstan is located in the center of the Eurasian continent. Its territory is as large as 2 million 724,9 thousand square kilometers and accordingly it occupies the ninth place in the world by its size. In the North and West the republic has common borders with Russia – 6467 km (the longest continuous overland border in the world), in the East with China - 1 781 km, in the South with Kyrgyzstan - 980 km, with Uzbekistan - 2 300 km and with Turkmenistan - 380 km. The total length of overland borders is equal to 13 364 km.



Due to the remoteness from oceans the country has an extreme continental climate. The average temperature in different parts of the country in winter varies between 15 degrees Celsius below zero to 35 degrees Celsius and between 27 ° C above zero and 40 degrees Celsius above zero in summer. Summer is hot and dry, winter is cold and snowy.



Steppes cover 26 % of Kazakhstan’s territory, and 20 % of the territory is covered by mountainous area, forests - 5,5 %. There are 48 000 lakes and 85 000 rivers, the length of 7 rivers exceed 1 000 km. Caspian sea’s water area is situated within the country’s territory and considered as a largest indoor water area in Kazakhstan. Coast area of Kazakhstan is 2 340 km. 



The population of Kazakhstan (according to Census in the beginning of 2016) was 17 769 475 people. Kazakh people – 66,5%, Russian – 20.6%, the percentage of other nationalities varies from 1-3%. (Sunni Muslims 70%, orthodox Christians 15-20%).



The state language is Kazakh. The Russian language has the status of a language of interethnic communication.


Monetary unit

Monetary unit of the Republic of Kazakhstan – tenge (₸). Currency rate varied between 345 – 350 KZT per 1 USD in 2016.


The most important cities and ports:

  • The city of Astana: is a new capital of Kazakhstan since December 10, 1997. It is a modern rapidly developing city with a large number of modern buildings and avenues, and it hosts many of the conferences, international political and economic forums as well as the most important of World and Traditional Religions Leaders Conference, that are held once every three years starting in 2003, Astana Economic Forum, which is held annually starting in 2008 and the Asian Winter Games in 2011 and is currently preparing to host international specialized exhibition (Expo 2017).

  • Almaty: used to be the capital of the state until the year 1997 and currently it has a population of about 1,7 million people, according to the census at the beginning of 2016. Almaty is a commercial and financial center, which has a private financial and legal privileges.

  • Shymkent city: has a population of about 660 thousand people, it is a center of South Kazakhstan which is the most densely populated region (2, 9 million). There are many cultural and historical monuments located in the city.

  • Karagandy city: located in the center of Kazakhstan, with a population of about 480 thousand people, it was built in 1934 to be an industrial, commercial and scientific center.

  • Atyrau city: is located in the northwest of the country and overlooking the Caspian Sea. The city has a population of 250 thousand people and known as an oil hub for the region.

  • Aktau city: with a population of  200 thousand people is  known with the main port of Kazakhstan on the Caspian Sea. There are also other cities among fourteen provincial centers in Kazakhstan with the population exceeding 200 thousand.